AP Stats-Review: eTutorial

Link for AP Statistics Review:

Created by Kristy Benner, December 2011

This tutorial serves as a review of AP Stats topics involving Statistical inference. Main items included are 1Proportion and 2Proportion Z Tests, 1Sample and 2Sample and Paired T Tests, Chi-Squared Tests, and Linear Regression Slope T Tests.

This was created for my high school AP Statistics students as a practice “quiz” prior to the AP Stats exam.

The book I follow in this course is Stats: Modeling the World, 2nd edition, by Bock, Velleman, and De Veaux. Some example problems and information included in this tutorial are taken from this book.


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Assisitive Tech: Android Phone – Speech to Text

If you have an Android Phone, use it for Speech-Text.  The Android has the Speak (microphone) feature built into anything that uses the keyboard. Of course this can be used for chatting, texting, and searching on the web. But, don’t forget about the things like emails or  things you have to write that may be put into documents or answers to questions – essay questions.

Student Use: Many students have the Android operating system phone. Let’s say a teacher gives an essay question. Then, the student  can “write” the answer  in an email, and send it to the teacher or self. The student writing would be talking the answer into the Android. The Android would type it out. empty

Now, do not think that the students gets off easy. A user needs to “speak” the structure. The student still has to say words like “period” or “question mark” at the end of a sentence. If the students wants a new paragraph, the student must say, “new paragraph.” And, as always, the spelling and grammar should be checked.

For academically bright students, this is the type of technology we want. The Android offloads dexterity issues and spelling, while focusing the students on the structure and content.

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Remembering Excellence: Steve Jobs

Steve Jobs for Fortune magazine

Short & Sweet: http://georgecouros.ca/blog/archives/2410
You Tube of Talk at Standford – Excellent on Failure!: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=UF8uR6Z6KLc
NY Times article: http://www.nytimes.com/2011/10/06/business/steve-jobs-of-apple-dies-at-56.html

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Assistive Technology that is Readily Accessible

There are many options within Windows or Apple computers that make them more accessible to learners. This PDF includes accessibility options for the following:

  • Windows OS – XP & 7
  • Microsoft Office Windows 2003, 2007 & 2010
  • Mac – systems and Microsoft office for Mac
  • Acrobat PDF reader

Download the PDF: 1Accessibility-Handout Win&Mac-2-2011 PDF

FYI: Personally, I use text -to-speach to catch some typos.  Magnifiers are good when teaching a room full of students. Have fun!

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Learning from Other Countries – Developing a Valued Teaching Profession!

Article: Raising teacher quality around the world

appreviated worldDo you know that other high-performing countries spend a higher proportion of their education dollar on teachers than we do here in the United States? In this article Vivian Stewart illuminates various strategies used in other countries to recruit and professionally develop a growing teaching force.

The interesting strategies:

  • England: Raised the status of the profession through an advertising campaign and televising teacher award programs.
  • Singapore: Recruits prospective teachers in the top one third of the secondary class.
  • Hard to teach areas: What I found most interesting – China and Australia provide  incentives, money and bonuses, for teachers to teach in areas for which they have a difficulty finding teachers...Hmmm opposite here in the USA.
  • Merit pay: Both Finland and Canada reject merit pay on the basis that it does more harm than good. In Singapore teacher performance is appraised based on classroom instruction collaborated with community groups and colleagues at the school – NOT just a test.

Linda Darling-Hammond notes  that we compare students test scores  to countries that outscore us, but we do not pay attention to what they do! To improve test scores, the USA needs to invest in teacher development. We can learn from others.  Each teacher can only improve him or herself, but we need a collective capacity.

To help our education system we need a systems approach so that we can build collective capacity (Fullan, 2011). Other countries have a wholistic strategy, which includes changing the values of the nation.

Thought about unions:  Our politicians have a strong voice in education  but are ill equipped to make professional decisions that positively affect learning. Perhaps the unions could wield their influence to make this happen. Currently, teachers unions represents approximately 3,000,000 teachers in the United States. In addition both the NEA and the AFT  are led by a plethora of education professionals. Could these unions wield their influence to advocate for teacher quality programs that advocate small and established teacher development programs that would encourage growth for all of us. Currently, our unions have seemed to be reactive. Could that change. Could we be proactive rather than reactive?

Pages: 4
Type of Reading
: Practice Education
: Vital for those interested in a system change in developing teachers.
Web Article: Raising Teacher Quality Around the World


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Double Stuff Oreo of Technology Integration Research

Research study: What Forty Years of Research Says About the Impact of Technology on Learning: A Second-Order Meta-Analysis and Validation Study

The real question for technology advocates: does technology really make a difference to academic achievement? Don’t YOU want to know!

To study this question the researchers conducted a second order meta-analysis.  This second order meta-analysis selected 13 meta-analyses that addressed a total of 1055 primary studies, 574 effect sizes and 60,854 participants.

For those interested in technology integration, this study is vital to your understanding and advocating technology integration.  WHY you ask?

First, you need to understand  the value of a meta-analysis, and second, the value of the second order meta-analysis.

What’s a meta-analysis?

A meta-analysis combines the results from many other studies that have a similar research hypothesis. This is incredibly important because most research studies are so small that they make generalizations impractical,  and even if the study can be replicated, the context is so controlled that it becomes difficult to generalize into anything meaningful. A meta-analysis does not just look at one study, but many. The results are usually meaningful.

The second order meta-analyses evaluated other meta-analysis. That is like a double-stuff Oreo – packet with good stuff! The results should be taken seriously! This second order meta-analysis included elementary, secondary, post secondary, computer-assisted instruction, computer-based instruction, and information and commuter communication technology. The study did not look at distance education.Double Stuff Oreo Picture


Results: Technology made the difference in modest academic achievement!   Note: There was a higher effect for technologies used for  support rather than for direct instruction.

So what does this mean for teachers? And means that PowerPoint alone will not increase achievement much at all. But, integrated technology with supportive systems has a larger effect on achievement. This coincides with other studies and importantly with the meta-analysis that supports the learner centered classroom which as has a positive impact on student achievement (Cornelius-White, 2007)

Big Question:HOW should technology be included in student learning?
: More student centered learning goals should align with technology to help students complete a task, not merely PowerPoints.

Pages: 14
Type of Reading
: Academic Research
: Vital for technology integration, but challenging to read.
Tamim, R. M., Bernard, R. M., Borokhovski, E., Abrami, P. C., & Schmid, R. F. (2011). What Forty Years of Research Says About the Impact of Technology on Learning: A Second-Order Meta-Analysis and Validation Study. Review of Educational Research, 81(1), 4-28. doi:10.3102/0034654310393361


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Digital Spectator to Digital Immigrant!

Becoming a digital immigrant can be thrilling!  Two years I bought my mom a PC. It has been a upward climb for her, but this is now what she wrote -Poetry about her PC:

The sequence of my relationship to my pc has been something like this:
                              a machine with lots of buttons to learn
                              a machine that has buttons that I don’t have to learn and can still do what I WANT
                              a machine that does what “IT”wants and I am second [but I must communicate the" old" way to get it to do what I want]
                              now I am third
                              smooth sailing occurs for a while and I hope it will last forever
                               nonsense, nothing lasts forever but I can bask in all the wonderful experiences I have had in communicating ‘techy” and the knowledge that was gained
                              changes keep happening on my screen
                               now I have decided that it is an “entertainer” and I am here for the show
  I don’t know what the next curtain call will be but as long as I’ve paid for my ticket, I’ll enjoy the show!

 Feeling that I am at a tech show, helps ease the frustration and gives me the choices an “observer” has. Very gradually, I have moved from an audience seat to the “background crowd”. I admire  the real actors,stars and stage crew.
  Exposure to this entertainment is wonderful. Thanks again for my pc

HUGS from mom

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Through Our Weakness We are Strong

Your greatest strength is your greatest weakness, so why not work on your weakness to make it a strength! (Don’t think too hard; your brain may hurt!)

This past week, my graduate students have been brilliant. Ok. They are every week. But this past week, it has especially touched me. So, am I just sentimental?  Maybe, but my students continue to inspire me, even when I feel that my creativity is low.

This reminds me of the humbleness needed for teaching with tech: Why? As you saw in my last post, I get bummed out at times with technology, because it is impossible to keep up. And yes, I have limitations. But, through watching others and listening, we have the opportunity to grow, and best of all, through our limitations, learners share more ideas. As educators, we are conduits for empowering our students. This often happens through our weakness:

  • Our weakness gives students “permission” to go beyond what we can give them.
  • When we are transparent about our practice, open about our foibles, and rejoice with learners’ success, they seek new and innovative ways to expand our knowledge and make it into their own wisdom.

Tech encourages this teacher humbleness. Since tech moves so fast, it becomes impossible to be the keeper of all knowledge, blurring the line between teacher and student since we are all learners! (This is reported by all incredible tech integrators). Therefore, it is through our weakness that we give students permission to seek – which in turn – makes us strong!

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Digial Immigrant’s Lament into Internal Relief

I am a digital immigrant and hate it. My fingers do not fly across a keyboard or operate with smooth finesse on a smart phone. I often hit the wrong button and wonder what the __ am I doing. As technology gets smaller & faster, it is time for me to make a confession to myself. Yes, I am an immigrant. Oye. That was tough.

The label “digital immigrant” and “digital native” have been coined for quite some time (Prensky, 2001), but I never read the article, and my brain recoiled at the thought. In fact, I didn’t even use those words in my graduate classes. (They were akin to the F word coming out of my mouth). I heard the words in so many talks & lectures with the attribute to Prensky’s brilliance, that I knew the concept without reading. The concept was intuitive was it not!? Why did I not want to admit it?

I felt less than and not as good as…. All those comparisons that also carry value judgments.

Well, now, it is becoming more and more obvious that I  am a digital immigrant, which means that my brain will never be wired like that of the fast-moving, digital-grooving youngsters. Sigh. Is there hope for me – for us immigrants? The slower paced ones?

Being an eternal optimist – idealist- with a belief that it takes most to make the world a better place, I am forcing myself to brain shift — leaping out of this dark thought, since the wallowing gets me nowhere.

Brain SHIFT. Ready.  Go! Here is a list of the ways  digital immigrants can use our gifts to inspire and empower wisely the digital natives:

  1. Demonstrate how to slow down
  2. Treasure relationships & face-to-face communication
  3. Reflect and think before acting – even with digital communication
  4. Go outside and play, go on a good hike
  5. Value ideas different from your own
  6. Demonstrate how to learn and be outdated with grace, but keep growing & accepting change.

We digital immigrants have a lot to share. But, our sharing is best done by example, by embracing the change with wisdom, understanding and questioning. Someday, the natives will be out-of-date. Then, the digital natives will need to share their wisdom with the digital — what will they be called!?

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